ARTICLE 1. a. A series (Rule 2-24-1) of up to four consecutive scrimmage downs shall be awarded to the team that is next to put the ball in play by a snap after a free kick, touchback, fair catch or change in team possession, or to the offensive team in overtime.
b. A new series shall be awarded to Team A if it is in legal possession of the ball on or beyond its line to gain when the ball is declared dead.
c. A new series shall be awarded to Team B if, after fourth down, Team A has failed to earn a first down. (A.R. 10-1-5:I)
d. A new series shall be awarded to Team B if Team A's scrimmage kick goes out of bounds or comes to rest and no player attempts to secure it (Exception: Rule 8-5-1-a).
e. A new series shall be awarded to the team in legal possession when the ball is declared dead:
1. If a change of team possession occurs during the down.
2. If a scrimmage kick crosses the neutral zone (Exceptions: (1) When the down is repeated; (2) Rule 6-3-7).
3. If an accepted penalty awards the ball to the offended team.
4. If an accepted penalty mandates a first down.
f. A new series shall be awarded to Team B whenever Team B, after a scrimmage kick, elects to take the ball at a spot of illegal touching (Exception: When the down is repeated) (Rules 6-3-2-a and 6-3-2-b).
ARTICLE 2. a. The line to gain for a series shall be established 10 yards in advance of the most forward point of the ball; but if this line is in the opponent's end zone, the goal line becomes the line to gain.
b. The line to gain is established when the ball is made ready for play before the first down of the new series.
ARTICLE 3. a. The most forward point of the ball when declared dead between the end lines shall be the determining point in measuring distance gained or lost by either team during any down (Exceptions:
1. Rule 8-5-1. (A.R. 8-5-1:I)
2. When an airborne pass receiver of either team completes a catch inbounds after an opponent has driven him backward and the ball is declared dead at the spot of the catch, the forward progress is where the player received the ball.
The ball always shall be placed with its length axis parallel to the sideline before measuring (Rule 4-1-3-p). (A.R. 5-1-3:I, III, IV and VI) (A.R. 7-3-6:V))
b. Questionable distance for a first down should be measured without request. Unnecessary measurements to determine first downs shall not be granted.
c. No request for a measurement shall be granted after the ball is ready for play.
ARTICLE 4. The continuity of a series of scrimmage downs is broken when:
a. Team possession of the ball changes during a down.
b. A scrimmage kick crosses the neutral zone.
c. A kick goes out of bounds.
d. A kick comes to rest and no player attempts to secure it.
e. At the end of a down, Team A has earned a first down.
f. After fourth down, Team A has failed to earn a first down.
g. An accepted penalty mandates a first down.
h. There is a score.
i. A touchback is awarded to either team.
j. The second period ends.
k. The fourth period ends.
ARTICLE 1. When a scrimmage down follows the penalty for a foul committed during a free kick down, the down and distance established by that penalty shall be first down with a new line to gain.
ARTICLE 2. It is a new series with a new line to gain:
a. After a penalty that leaves the ball in possession of Team A beyond its line to gain.
b. After a penalty that mandates a first down.
ARTICLE 3. a. If a penalty is accepted for a foul that occurs between the goal lines before a change of team possession during a down, the ball belongs to Team A. The down shall be repeated, unless the penalty also involves loss of a down, mandates a first down, or leaves the ball on or beyond the line to gain (Exceptions: Rules 8-3-3-b-1, 10-2-3, 10-2-4 and 10-2-5). (A.R. 10-2-3:I)
b. If the penalty involves loss of a down, the down shall count as one of the four in that series.
ARTICLE 4. If a penalty is accepted for a foul that occurs during a down after a change of team possession, the ball belongs to the team in possession when the foul occurred. The down and distance established by any such penalty shall be first down with a new line to gain (Exception: Rule 10-2-5-a).
ARTICLE 5. If a penalty is declined, the number of the next down shall be whatever it would have been if the foul had not occurred.
ARTICLE 6. After a distance penalty incurred between downs, the number of the next down shall be the same as that established before the foul occurred, unless enforcement for a foul by Team B leaves the ball on or beyond the line to gain or a penalty mandates a first down (Rule 9-1). (A.R. 5-2-6:I) (A.R. 10-1-5:I-III)
ARTICLE 7. a. The penalty for any dead-ball foul (including live-ball fouls treated as dead-ball fouls) that occurs after a series ends and before the ball is ready for play shall be completed before the line to gain is established.
b. The penalty for any dead-ball foul that occurs after the ball is ready for play shall be completed after the line to gain is established. (A.R. 5-2-7:I-V)
ARTICLE 8. If offsetting fouls occur during a down, that down shall be repeated (Rule 10-1-4 Exceptions). (A.R. 10-1-4:III-VI and VII)
ARTICLE 9. No rule decision may be changed after the ball is next legally snapped, legally free kicked or the second or fourth periods have ended (Rules 3-2-1-a, 3-3-4-e-2 and 11-1-1). (Exception: The number of a down may be corrected any time within that series of downs or before the ball is legally next put in play after that series.)
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